"All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state." - Benito Mussolini
A Picture taken of Benito Mussolini
Born July 29, 1883, Benito Mussolini is credited with being an important member of the creation of fascism. Italy ended World War 1 as a victor, but was not satisfied by the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty did not allow them to recapture "unredeemed" lands and the new nations of Yugoslavia. To further extend their bitterness their economy was experiencing inflation, unemployment, and high budget deficits. This time of chaos and disorder was the perfect scenario for Mussolini to enter, for Italy sought a man to lead itself. Mussolini used the squadristi (or blackshirts) to promote fear and chaos through out the political system. Although his group had only gained a minority of the votes, he continued to gain votes and saw himself as a champion of the law. By 1922, Mussolini saw that it was time to gain his power and initiated the March on Rome, where thousands of facist went to the capital to convince Victor Emmanuel III to give power to Mussolini. Although, before the March on Rome had occurred, Mussolini and Emmanuel had already agreed to the terms. The march was just a showcase. Mussolini's fascism censored the press, enforced one part rule, and employed a secret police, the OVRA, to find rebels against the state. Fascism expressed glorification of the state, and anti democracy and anti communism principles. Mussolini, to address Italy's problems such as a declining birth rate, awarded large families and gave awards to fertile mothers. Mussolini is said to have "made the trains run on time" creating reforms such as clearing swamps and building roads. Although fascist efforts were made, Italy would never achieve the totalitarian level of Stalinist Soviet Union or Nazi Germany.
"The Keystone of the Fascist doctrine is its conception of the State, of its essence, its function, and its aims. For Fascism the State is absolute, individuals and group relative." - Benito Mussolini